OET KERALA - Best OET Coaching / Training Centre

OET Trivandrum


If you are a nurse in Kerala (India) and planning to work in UK/ Australia / NewZealand, take OET Trivandrum Training with us to make your dream come true. We simplify OET coaching in Trivandrum so you face no hassles in achieving the coveted B Grade to work in UK, Australia or NewZealand.

As part of the requirements for registration to practise as a health practitioner in Australia, overseas trained health professionals from non-English speaking backgrounds (India, for example) must pass the English Test (OET). The OET applies to the mainstream health professions, including medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, physiotherapy, veterinary medicine, occupational therapy, dietetics, radiography and others. (At COSMO OET Coaching Centre however, we provide OET training only for those in the nursing profession).

Best OET Coaching Center Trivandrum






COSMO is rated the top OET Coaching Center in Trivandrum, Kerala. Many OET coaching centers/institutions in Trivandrum notwithstanding, we at COSMO have retained the cutting edge when it comes to OET training/coaching in Kerala due to the innovative teaching strategies and the fun-filled classrooms. With our exceptional techniques taught in an easy-to-remember manner, you can be sure that you would be able to answer maximum questions in minimum time. This great enabling is what makes us stand apart from the other OET Coaching/Training institutions in Trivandrum, Kerala.

In India and abroad, the OET Online coaching provided by COSMO Trivandrum ( Kerala) is widely considered to be most efficacious even when taken for shorter durations. Please contact well in advance if you want online OET Training in Kerala ( India) to avoid disappointment.

OET Training Academy Trivandrum


With the most number of OET Exam results in Trivandrum and Kerala, it is no wonder that our OET coaching in Trivandrum are most sought-after by aspirants from all over India. We lower the bar for our students and raise it for our competitors i.e other OET coaching centers in Trivandrum. With online OET coaching requests pouring in from all over India, we have decided to take our OET online training in Kerala, all over the country.

In short, if you are looking for the best OET coaching institution/training academy in Trivandrum or Kerala, your search ends here as OET coaching in Trivandrum has become synonymous with COSMO.

At COSMO OET Coaching Centre, Kerala you will explore a world of global learning opportunities, dedicated and pro-active faculty, useful knowledge base and an environment that fosters knowledge sharing and self-development.

OET Coaching in Trivandrum is at its finest at COSMO inspite of the tall claims made by some new OET preparation centres in Trivandrum.
If you are looking for a B- Grade or better in the OET exam Kerala, then you can't go wrong with COSMO as the OET Training in Trivandrum is conducted by the experts in the OET Coaching arena, which not only guarantees exceptional and top class OET Trivandrum coaching but also instills the confidence to crack the OET exam within just a few days of starting the OET Course in Trivandrum. Rest assured if you are with COSMO OET Coaching Centre in Trivandrum as you are in safest possible hands.

Now, what are you waiting for? Join OET classes @ COSMO OET Training center at Trivandrum and realize your dream of a job and life in Australia and NewZealand.

Take your OET Trivandrum Coaching from the experts in Trivandrum and Kerala for best results. For OET in Trivandrum, please contact us at 9645220486.

We provide convenient OET class timings ( regular & online OET coaching) for nurses who are working in different hospitals across Trivandrum.

We also help students with OET Exam registration and get them the best possible OET exam dates. There are two OET exam centres in Kerala viz, Trivandrum and Kochi.

To know more about the OET Exam Fee / OET Test Dates in Kerala or about the OET Coaching fee ( Classroom regular & Online OET Training) , please contact our Trivandrum office @ 0471-4850212.

Join Us

COSMO Centre provides an excellent student experience in language learning through Pattern - Based teaching methods and strategies, which makes us a unique institution in Kerala, India. With thousands of happy students over the last many years, start your odyssey to greater heights with us. We don’t just meet your expectations, but we endeavour to exceed your expectations by a wide margin.

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Upcoming OET Exam / Test Dates @ Trivandrum, Kerala


Exam Date Application Opening Day Result Publishing Day
06 Apr 2019 08 Jan - 11 Mar 03 May 2019
18 May 2019 29 Jan - 22 Apr 06 Jun 2019
15 Jun 2019 19 Feb - 20 May 4 Jul 2019
07 Jul 2019 12 Mar - 11 Jun 25 Jul 2019
03 Aug 2019 23 Apr - 08 Jul 22 Aug 2019
31 Aug 2019 21 May - 5 Aug 19 Sep 2019
21 Sep 2019 12 Jun - 26 Aug 11 Oct 2019
13 Oct 2019 09 Jul - 17 Sep 31 Oct 2019
09 Nov 2019 06 Aug - 14 Oct 28 Nov 2019
07 Dec 2019 27 Aug - 04 Nov 02 Jan 2020


Upcoming OET Exam / Test Dates @ Kochi, Kerala


Exam Date Application Opening Day Result Publishing Day
06 Apr 2019 08 Jan - 11 Mar 03 May 2019
18 May 2019 29 Jan - 22 Apr 06 Jun 2019
15 Jun 2019 19 Feb - 20 May 4 Jul 2019
07 Jul 2019 12 Mar - 11 Jun 25 Jul 2019
03 Aug 2019 23 Apr - 08 Jul 22 Aug 2019
31 Aug 2019 21 May - 5 Aug 19 Sep 2019
21 Sep 2019 12 Jun - 26 Aug 11 Oct 2019
13 Oct 2019 09 Jul - 17 Sep 31 Oct 2019
09 Nov 2019 06 Aug - 14 Oct 28 Nov 2019
07 Dec 2019 27 Aug - 04 Nov 02 Jan 2020


OET Test Format


  • Writing (45 minutes)
  • Speaking (approximately 20 minutes)
  • Listening (approximately 50 minutes)
  • Reading (60 minutes)

OET Preparation Course content


  • OET Writing, OET Speaking, OET Reading, OET Listening.
  • Letter writing including but not limited to: formal and informal letters, patient referral letters, hospital admissions letters, reminder letter to patients, patient discharge letters etc.
  • Speaking using tone| diction| fluency| accuracy & volume, which covers typical patient scenarios in Australia‎
  • Pronunciation and appropriate language for when dealing with people in all contexts e.g. hospital settings and private clinics
  • Functional language, taking patient histories, giving explanations, giving advice, aggression conversation and giving re-assurances
  • Dealing with children, teenagers, adults and older Australians
  • Australian health care sector – understanding the role of different government departments and understanding public and private health enterprise
  • Speed reading and comprehension for all components of the OET test
  • Reading for specific purposes – understanding the text and being able to answers specific questions relating to the text.
  • Health professional’s grammar in writing and speaking for the OET test.


OET Medical Vocabulary

A

abdomen

stomach

abdominal

having to do with the stomach

abdominal cavity

space in the stomach where the stomach, intestines, kidney, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and ureters are found

abdominocentesis

use of needle or tube to drain fluid from the stomach

abdominoperineal resection

surgery to remove the middle and end of the large intestine

abdominoplasty

surgery to fix the stomach

abduction

movement away from the middle of the body

abortion

the premature end of a pregnancy

abrasion

area where skin or other tissue is scraped away

abruptio placentae

premature separation of the placenta from the mother

abscess

swelling filled with pus

absorption

the way a drug or other substance enters the body

the route and rate that a compound gets into the system (bloodstream)

acapnia

decreased carbon dioxide in the blood

acetabulum

pocket in the hip bone that holds the top of the upper leg bone

acidosis

increase of acid in the blood

acne

pimples

acoumeter

tool used to measure hearing

acoustic neuroma

growth in the ear canal

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

contagious illness that results in decreased ability of the body to protect itself from other illnesses

acromegaly

a disease of adults in which the body makes too much growth hormone

actinic keratosis

skin disease (bumps) caused by extreme overexposure to the sun

activated partial thromboplastin time

a test of blood clotting time used to measure the ability of the blood to clot

active ingredient

The pharmacologically active part of any medication. Many pharmaceutical products contain inactive ingredients that create the formulation.

acute

lasting a short time but often causing a serious problem

Addison's disease

serious disorder in which there is decreased cortisol and aldosterone in the body, resulting in weakness, low blood pressure, and other serious problems

adduction

movement toward the middle of the body

adenohypophysis

gland in the brain that makes many hormones that control body functions

adenoidectomy

surgery to take out the adenoids

adenoiditis

inflammation of the adenoids

adenoids

infection­fighting glands in the back of the throat

adenomyosis

a growth of muscle in the uterus

adenotome

tool used to remove adenoids

adhesion

tissue stuck together

adipose

having to do with fat

ADME

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion. This describes the four stages that a pharmaceutical product would go through when administered to a human.

administer

give

adrenal gland

a gland found over each kidney

adrenalectomy

surgery to remove an adrenal gland

adrenaline

hormone made by the adrenal glands that speeds up body organs and helps the body deal with stress

adrenalitis

inflammation of one or both adrenal glands

adrenocortical hormone

any of the hormones made by the outer layer of the adrenal glands

adrenocorticohyperplasia

increased growth of one or both adrenal glands

adrenocorticotropic hormone

hormone made by the brain that activates the adrenal glands

adrenomegaly

increase in size of one or both adrenal glands

adrenopathy

disease of one or both adrenal glands

Advanced Technology Medicinal Product (ATMP)

a gene therapy medicinal product

a somatic cell therapy medicinal product a tissue engineered product.

adverse

harmful, bad

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR)

In the pre­approval clinical experience with a new medicinal product or its new usages, particularly as the therapeutic dose(s) may not be established: all noxious and unintended responses to a medicinal product related to any dose should be considered adverse drug reactions.

The phrase responses to a medicinal product means that a causal relationship between a medicinal product and an adverse event is at least a reasonable possibility, i.e. the relationship cannot be ruled out.

Regarding marketed medicinal products: a response to a drug which is noxious and unintended and which occurs at doses normally used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy of diseases or for modification of physiological function

Adverse Event (AE)

Any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with this treatment.

aerosol

drug or substance made as a mist to be breathed in

Aetiology

The factors involved in causing a disease.

afferent

going toward the center area

afterbirth

material that provides nutrition for the unborn baby and comes out after the baby is born (placenta)

airway

tube through which air passes to enter and leave the lungs

alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

substance in blood that is measured to check for liver disease

albino

white; lacking pigment (lacking color)

albuminuria

protein in the urine

alcohol

drug found in whisky, wine, and beer that slows down the central nervous system

aldosterone

hormone made by the adrenal glands that controls the amount of mineral salts in the body

Algorithm

A procedure to assist the structured achievement of an outcome that involves a series of alternative decisions

allergy

oversensitivity to a substance

alopecia

baldness

alpha­fetoprotein

substance in blood that is measured to check for liver cancer, testicular cancer , and spina bifida

ALS

see amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

Alzheimer's disease

disorder that causes mental confusion

amenorrhea

when a woman has no menstrual period

amniocentesis

removal of some of the waters from around an unborn baby for laboratory testing

amniochorial

having to do with the tissues that surround the unborn baby

amniography

x­ray of the uterus (womb) and unborn baby taken after putting a dye into the bag of waters

amnion

tissue that covers the unborn baby

amnionitis

inflammation of the amnion

amniorrhea

leaking of waters from around the unborn baby

amniorrhexis

breaking of the amnion

amnioscope

tool inserted through the cervix to look at the amniotic fluid and the unborn baby

amniotic fluid

waters around the unborn baby

amniotic sac

bag of tissue that surrounds the unborn baby

amniotomy

rupture of the membranes (breaking of the tissues around the unborn baby) ­ done to start labor

amphetamines

drugs that speed up metabolism and decrease appetite ("speed")

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

a disease of the nerves that causes weakness, also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease

anal

having to do with the anus

analgesic

drug used to control pain Drugs to relieve or reduce pain

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

A statistical technique to determine whether the mean values of different treatment groups are the same or different.

anaphylactic shock

serious allergic reaction to a substance (e.g., food, drug) Severe generalised form of anaphylaxis which may lead to a sudden attack of wheezing, collapse, cardiac arrest and may lead to death

Anaphylaxis

Severe allergic reaction

androgen

male sex hormone

anemia

decreased number of red blood cells

anesthesia

loss of sensation or feeling

anesthetic

drug that is used to produce loss of pain sensation

aneurysm

area where an artery is swollen like a sack because the wall of the artery is weak

aneurysmectomy

surgery to take out an aneurysm

angina pectoris

chest pain due to decreased oxygen being supplied to the heart

angiocarditis

inflammation of the heart and the blood vessels entering the heart

angioma

growth made up of blood vessels or lymph vessels

angioplasty

surgery to open up a narrow blood vessel

angiorrhaphy

stitching a blood vessel

angioplasm

cramp in the blood vessels

angiostenosis

narrowing of the inside of a blood vessel

angled

bent, not straight

ankylosing spondylitis

inflammation of the spine causing pain and stiffness

ankylosis

joint stiffness

anoplasty

surgery to fix the anus

anorexia

no appetite for food

anorexia nervosa

mental disorder in which fear of getting fat results in starvation and weight loss

anoxia

no oxygen

antacid

drug used to decrease acid in the stomach (e.g., Tums, Rolaids)

antecubital.

in front of the elbow

antepartum

before childbirth

anterior

having to do with the front of the body

anterior and posterior colporrhaphy

surgery to fix weak muscles in the pelvic area

anterior lobe

front part of an organ

anterior lobe of the pituitary

part of the pituitary gland that discharges many hormones

antianginal

drug used to relieve chest pain

antiarrhythmic

drug used to restore the natural rhythm of the heart

antibiotic

drug used to stop or slow down the growth of germs

antibody

type of protein that helps protect the body against foreign matter, such as bacteria and viruses

anticoagulant

drug used to stop blood from clotting

anticonvulsant

drug used to stop seizures

antidiarrheal

drug used to stop diarrhea

antidiuretic hormone

hormone made by the pituitary gland that helps the kidneys keep water in the body by decreasing urine formation

antidote

substance used to treat allergic reactions

antiemetic

drug used to stop vomiting

antihistamine

drug used to treat allergic reaction

antinauseant

drug used to stop nausea and vomiting

antipruritic

drug used to stop itching

antiseptic

substance used to stop or slow down the growth of germs

antrectomy

surgery to remove the lower part of the stomach

antrum

lower part of the stomach

anuria

no urine being made

anus

ring of muscle that keeps the opening at the end of the digestive tract closed

aorta

biggest artery in the body

aortic stenosis

narrowing of the aorta where it comes out of the heart

aortogram

x­ray of the aorta

apepsia

without digestion

aphagia

not able to swallow

aphasia

not able to speak or write and not able to understand spoken or written words

apnea

stopping of breathing

aponeurorrhaphy

stitching of an aponeurosis

aponeurosis

strong tissue that joins muscle to bone

appendectomy

surgery to remove the appendix

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

Applicable Regulatory Requirement(s)

Any law(s) and regulation(s) addressing the conduct of clinical trials of investigational products.

approximately

nearly, about

aqueous humor

liquid found in the front of the cavity of the eye

arachnoid

middle layer of the meninges

Area Under Curve (AUC)

Plot of concentration of a drug against time. Used as a method of comparing bioavailability of different products

areola

dark­colored skin around the breast nipple

arrhythmia

uneven heartbeat

arteriogram

x­ray using a dye to outline an artery

arterioles

small branches of arteries

arteriorrhexis

breaking of an artery

arteriosclerosis

hardening of the artery

artery

the type of blood vessel that carries blood and oxygen from the heart to the rest of the body

arthralgia

pain in a joint

arthritis

inflammation of one or more joints

arthrocentesis

use of a needle to remove fluid from a joint

arthroclasia

surgery to free up a joint that it is stiff so it cannot move

arthrodesis

surgery to fasten a joint so it cannot move

arthrogram

x­ray of a joint

arthroplasty

surgery to fix a joint

arthrosclerosis

stiffening of the joints

arthroscope

tool used to look into a joint

arthrotomy

surgery to cut into a joint

articular cartilage

smooth tissue that covers the bones inside a joint

artificial insemination

use of a tool to put sperm into the vagina for the purpose of beginning pregnancy

ascites

fluid in the stomach

aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

substance in blood that is measured to detect liver disease

aspermia

no sperm

asphyxia

suffocation

aspirate

removing a substance using suction

asthma

breathing disorder in which there is a wheezing and difficulty breathing

astigmatism

flaw in the curve of the eye

ataxia

uncontrolled muscle movement; incoordination

atelectasis

collapse of a lung

atherosclerosis

hardening of the arteries

atraumatic

not damaging to tissue

atrioventricular defect

hole in the heart present at birth

atrophy

wasting away, or decrease in size, of a body organ

audiogram

report of a hearing test

audiologist

doctor who studies hearing

audiology

the study of hearing

audiometer

tool used to measure hearing

audiometry

measurement of hearing

Audit

A systematic and independent examination of trial related activities and documents to determine whether the evaluated trial related activities were conducted, and the data were recorded, analyzed and accurately reported according to the protocol, sponsor's standard operating procedures (SOPs), Good Clinical Practice (GCP), and the applicable regulatory requirement(s).

Audit Certificate

A declaration of confirmation by the auditor that an audit has taken place

Audit Report

A written evaluation by the sponsor's auditor of the results of the audit.

Audit Trail

Documentation (paper or electronic) that allows reconstruction of the course of events.

aural

having to do with the ear

auricle

outside flap of the ear

auscultation

use of a stethoscope to listen to sounds inside the body

autoimmune disease

disorder in which a person's immune system attacks parts of his or her own body

B

bacteria

type of germs

bacterial

having to do with bacteria

bacterial analysis

test used to detect and identify bacteria

bacterial endocarditis

bacterial infection of the inner lining of the heart

bag of waters

sack containing liquid that surrounds the unborn baby

balanitis

inflammation of the end of the penis

balanorrhagia

balanitis with discharge of pus from the end of the penis

balanorrhea

discharge of fluid from the penis

barbiturates

group of drugs that are used for different reasons, including general anesthesia, sedation, and stopping seizures

Bartholin adenitis

inflammation of the mucus­producing glands in the vagina

Bartholin's glands

mucus­producing glands in the vagina

basal cell carcinoma

type of skin cancer

bayonet

tool that is sharp like a knife

benign

not cancerous

benign prostatic hypertrophy

increase in size of the prostate gland

beta blocker

drug used to slow down the heart

beta­HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

substance in blood that is measured to detect cancer of the testicles

bicuspid valve

a valve in the heart that controls the flow of blood by opening and closing with each heartbeat

bilateral

having to do with both sides of the body

bile

brown­yellow­green liquid made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder that helps with digestion

bile duct

tube that carries bile

bilirubin

a substance found in bile­ a high level of bilirubin in the blood causes jaundice

binocular

having to do with both eyes

Bioavailability

A measure of the amount of active drug which enters the appropriate body system and is therefore available at the target site.

Bioequivalence Study

Bioavailability study to compare two products to determine whether they have the same bioavailability profile

biopsy

removal of tissue so it can be looked at under a microscope

bleeding time

test to measure how long it takes for a small cut to stop bleeding

blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelid

blepharoplasty

surgery to fix the eyelid

blepharoptosis

drooping of the upper eyelid

Blinding

A procedure in which one or more parties to the trial are kept unaware of the treatment assignment(s).

Single­blinding usually refers to the subject(s) being unaware.

Double­blinding usually refers to the subject(s), investigator(s), monitor, and, in some cases, data analyst(s) being unaware of the treatment assignment(s).

blood

red liquid pumped by the heart

blood pressure (BP)

the pressure of blood flowing through blood vessels

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

substance in blood that is measured to check kidney function

blood vessels

tubes that carry blood through the body

bone marrow

soft tissue inside bones that makes blood cells

bone marrow biopsy

use of a needle to remove bone marrow so that it can be looked at under a microscope

bone marrow transplant

putting normal bone marrow from one person into another person

bowel

the intestine

bradycardia

slow heartbeat

bradykinesia

moving slow

bradypepsia

slow digestion

brain

main part of the central nervous system

brain stem

joins the brain to the spinal column

brand name

commercial name or trade name for a drug

breasts

milk­producing glands of women

breech birth

when feet, buttocks, or knees come out before head at birth

bronchi

more than one bronchus

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchi

bronchoconstrictor

drug used to make the bronchi tighten up and become narrower

bronchodilator

drug used to make the bronchi open up and become bigger

bronchogenic

beginning in the bronchus

bronchogram

x­ray of the bronchi

bronchoplasty

surgery to fix the bronchi

bronchopneumonia

inflammation of the bronchi and lungs

bronchoscope

tool used to look into the bronchi

bronchospasm

sudden, uncontrolled narrowing of airways in lungs

bronchus

tube that carries air from the bronchi

bulimia

an eating disorder in which a person cannot stop eating and often vomits to make room for more food

bunion

bone growth inside the base of the big toe

bursa

small sack filled with liquid that cushions moving parts, such as two bones in a joint

bursitis

inflammation of the bursa

bursolith

stone in a bursa

bursotomy

surgery to cut into a bursa

bypass

an artificial passageway from one blood vessel to another to get around a blood clot

C

caffeine

drug found in coffee and colas that speeds up the central nervous system, heart rate, and blood pressure

calcaneus

heel bone

calcipenia

low in calcium

cancellous bone

a type of bone that looks like a sponge

cancer

abnormal tissue that grows and spreads in the body until it kills

cancer chemotherapy

treatment of cancer using drugs

cancer radiotherapy

treatment of cancer using x­rays

cancerous

having to do with cancer

capillary

tiny blood vessel that connects arterioles to venules

carbohydrates

type of fuel for the body that includes sugars and starches

carbuncle

group of boils on the skin

carcinoembryonic antigen

substance in blood that is measured to detect tumors of stomach or intestines

carcinogenic

causing cancer

carcinoma

type of cancer

cardiac

having to do with the heart

cardiac arrest

stopping of the heart

cardiac catheterization

putting a catheter into the heart to test for or treat a heart problem

cardiac pacemaker

battery­powered tool put under the skin to control the heart rate

cardiac scan

ultrasonographic test to view the structure of the heart

cardiac tamponade

squeezing of the heart caused by fluid or blood build­up in the sac around the heart

cardiodynia

pain in the heart

cardiogenic

beginning in the heart

cardiologist

doctor who treats disorders of the heart

cardiology

increase in the size of the heart

cardiomegaly

disorder of the heart muscle

cardiomyopathy

disorder of the heart muscle

cardiopulmonary bypass

artificial passageway through which blood goes around the heart during open­heart surgery

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

giving artificial respiration and heart massage to try to save a person whose breathing or heart has stopped

cardiotonic

drug used to strengthen the pumping action of the heart

cardiovalvulitis

inflammation of the heart valves

cardioversion

use of electric shock to make the heart beat with normal rhythm

Carryover Effect

Any effect of a drug which lasts beyond the period of treatment

carpal

having to do with the wrist

carpal bones

wrist bones

carpal tunnel syndrome

painful disorder caused by a pinched nerve in the wrist

carpectomy

surgery to remove a wrist bone

carpoptosis

drooping wrist

Case Report Form (CRF)

A printed, optical, or electronic document designed to record all of the protocol required information to be reported to the sponsor on each trial subject.

cartilage

a rubbery type of tissue that pads the joints and keeps the shape of the nose and outside ear flaps

cataract

clouding of the lens of the eye

Categorical Data

Data which are evaluated by sorting the values into various categories (eg low, medium, high) or data that is only available in categories (eg ethnic origin, gender)

cathartic

drug used to stop constipation

catheter

flexible, tube­like tool used to take fluids out or put fluids into the body

caudal

toward the lower side of an organ or structure

Causality

The relationship of an adverse event to the use of study medication. The likelihood of the event being caused by the study drug is often classified as: unknown, not related, possible, probable, definite

cecum

the first part of the large intestine, which is shaped like a pouch

celiotomy

surgery to cut into the abdominal cavity

cell

the basic building block of all living things

cell membrane

layer that surrounds a cell

cellulitis

inflammation of connective tissue

Central Laboratory

A single laboratory (often a contract laboratory) which is contracted to perform laboratory testing for some or all sites in a multi­center clinical trial

central nervous system (CNS)

the brain and spinal cord

central nervous system drugs

drugs that speed up or slow down the central nervous system

cephalalgia

headache

cephalic

related to the head or the head end of the body

cephalosporin

type of antibiotic

cerebellitis

.inflammation of the cerebellum

cerebellum

the part of the brain that controls the movement of the muscles and helps maintain balance

cerebral

having to do with the cerebrum

cerebral aneurysm

aneurysm in the brain

cerebral angiography

x­ray of the blood vessels in the brain

cerebral palsy (CP)

birth disorder of the brain that results in difficulty moving

cerebral thrombosis

blood clot in the brain

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

the liquid around and in the brain and spinal cord

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

stroke

cerebrum

largest part of the brain, divided into right and left side

cerumen

ear wax

ceruminoma

growth inside the gland that discharges ear wax

cervical vertebrae

bones of the neck

cervicectomy

surgery to remove the cervix

cervicitis

inflammation of the cervix

chalazion

pimple on the eyelid caused by an inflamed gland

cheilorrhaphy

surgery to stitch a lip

chemical name

chemical formula for a drug (generic)

chemotherapeutic agent

anticancer drug

chemotherapy

treatment of disease using drugs

chest cavity

space where the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, and thymus are located

chiropodist

doctor who treats disorders of the feet

chiropractor

doctor who treats disorders of the spine and nerves

chisel

wedge­like tool with a blade that is used for cutting or chipping

chlamydia

type of germ that usually infects the eyes, lungs, or sex organs

chloasma

a tumor arising from the skin and other organs

cholangiogram

x­ray of the gallbladder and bile ducts

cholangioma

cancer of a bile duct

cholecystectomy

surgery to remove the gallbladder

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder

choledocholithiasis

gallstones in a bile duct

choledocholithotripsy

surgery to crush gallstones in a bile duct

cholelithiasis

gallstones

cholinergic

type of nerve or a drug used to change its action

chondrectomy

surgery to remove cartilage

chondromalacia

softening of joint cartilage, usually inside the knee

chorioamnionitis

inflammation of the tissue that covers the unborn baby

chorion

outside layer of the tissue that covers the unborn baby

choroid

middle layer of the eyeball

chromosomes

structures that hold the genes

chronic

lasting a long time

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

lung disorder in which the flow of air to the lungs is blocked (e.g., emphysema)

cicatrix

scar

circumcision

surgery to remove the foreskin

cirrhosis

serious liver disorder in which connective tissue replaces normal liver tissue, and liver failure often occurs

clavicle

collarbone

cleft lip and palate

birth defect in which there is a split in the lip and the roof of the mouth

clinical trial

research study usually involving a drug or device

clip

metal fastener used to join or close the edges of a wound

clitoris

sensitive female sex tissue located above the opening for urination

coagulation time

measure of how long it takes for blood to clot in a test tube

coarctation of the aorta

birth disorder in which an area of the aorta is very narrow

coccyx

tailbone

cochlea

the organ of hearing inside the ear

Cohort

A group of subjects in a research study who all fulfil the prespecified criteria for entry to a trial.

Cohort Study

A group of subjects are followed over a period of time for a specific reason, e.g. to assess their experiences in a period of time.

coitus

sexual intercourse between a man and a woman

colectomy

surgery to remove part or all of the colon

colonoscope

tool used to look into the colon

colostomy

an opening, or the surgery to make an opening, between the colon and the outside of the body

colpitis

inflammation of the vagina

colporrhaphy

stitching of the vagina

colposcope

tool with magnifying glass used to look into the vagina and at the cervix

coma

varying degrees of unconsciousness from which a person may not awaken

compact bone

hard layers of the bone

compensation

payment, money

Compliance

For the study team: Adherence to all the trial­related requirements, Good Clinical Practice (GCP) requirements, and the applicable regulatory requirements

For the subject: Completing all study related activities exactly as described in the informed consent. Examples include: taking a study medication as prescribed or attendance at all study visits.

complications

difficulties, problems

computerized tomography (CT)

x­ray machine that uses a computer to make pictures of the organs of the body

computerized axial tomography (CAT)

x­ray machine that uses a computer to make pictures of the body

conception

the beginning of pregnancy when the fertilized egg implants in the uterus

concomitant

given at the same time

concussion

unconsciousness resulting from a blow to the head affecting the brain

Confidentiality

Prevention of disclosure, to other than authorized individuals, of a sponsor's proprietary information or of a subject's identity.

condom

cover worn over the penis during sexual intercourse to prevent infection or pregnancy

congenital anomaly

birth defect

congenital heart disease (CHD)

heart disease present at birth

congenital heart failure (CHF)

failure of the heart resulting in fluid build­up in the lungs, other body tissues, or both

conjunctiva

tissue that lines the eyelids and covers part of the eye inside its sockets

conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva

connective tissue

type of tissue that connects, supports, touches, and surrounds various body parts

conscious

awake and aware

consequences

outcomes, results

constipation

decreased number of or difficulty making bowel movements

contraindications

medical reasons that prevent a person from using a certain drug or treatment

contusion

bruise

convulsion

seizure

Coombs' test

blood test to detect antibodies against red blood cells that is used in analyzing blood problems and cross matching blood for transfusions

cor pulmonale

heart disease or heart failure caused by a disorder of the lungs

cornea

clear tissue covering the front part of the eye

corneoiritis

inflammation of the cornea and iris

coronary artery

artery that supplies blood to the heart

coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

surgery to make a new passageway for blood to the heart

coronary ischemia

not enough blood going to the heart

coronary thrombosis

blood clot in a coronary artery

corpus

main portion of a body part or organ

cortex

outer layer of an organ or other structure in the body

cortical

having to do with a cortex

corticotropin

hormone made by the brain that activates the adrenal glands

cortisol

important hormone made by the adrenal gland that affects metabolism and mineral balance

costectomy

surgery to remove a rib

cough

sudden, loud flow if air from the lungs

CPR

see cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

cranial

related to the head or top of the body

cranial cavity

space inside the skull that holds the brain

cranioplasty

surgery to fix the skull

craniotomy

surgery on the skull or to make an opening in the skull

cranium bifidum

birth defect in which there is a crack in the skull

creatinine clearance test

blood test used to see if the kidneys can effectively remove creatinine from the blood

cretinism

a birth defect in which lack of thyroid hormone results in stopping of physical and mental development

Crohn's disease

serious inflammation of any part of the gastrointestinal tract

crossmatch

blood test to check if it is safe to give blood transfusion to a person

croup

children's breathing disorder resulting in coughing and harsh breathing

cryoextraction of the lens

surgery using low temperatures to remove a cataract

cryoretinopexy

surgery of the innermost layer of the eye

culdocentesis

removal of fluid from the pouch between the vagina and the rectum

culdoscope

tool used to look into the pouch between the vagina and the rectum

cumulation

increased action of a drug when given over a period of time

curt (curette)

spoon shaped tool used for scraping or cutting

curved

having a curved handle or a curved blade

Cushing's syndrome

disorder caused by too much of the adrenal hormones or long­time use of cortisone­type drugs in which there are many symptoms, including a fat, round face and weakness

cyanosis

blue color of tissues such as the skin or gums caused by too little oxygen

cyesiology

the study of pregnancy

cyesis

pregnancy

cyst

any closed sac in the body, especially one that contains fluid or semisolid material

cystectomy

surgery to remove the urinary bladder or gallbladder, also, removal of a cyst

cystic fibrosis (CF)

genetic disorder of glands resulting in lung and digestive problems

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder

cystocele

type of hernia in which the urinary bladder bulges into the vagina

cystogram

x­ray of the urinary bladder

cystolith

stone in the urinary bladder

cystolithotomy

surgery to remove a stone from the urinary bladder

cystoscope

tool used to look into the urinary bladder

cystostomy

surgery to make an opening into the urinary bladder

cystotrachelotomy

surgical cut into the neck of the urinary bladder

cystoureterogram

x­ray of the urinary bladder and ureters

cytogenic

making cells

cytoid

like a cell

cytology

the study of cells

cytomegalovirus (CMV)

type of herpes virus

cytoplasm

material inside a cell

D

dacryocystitis

inflammation of the tear sac

dacryocystorhinostom y

surgery to make an opening between the tear sac and the nose

debridement

surgery to clean foreign material and dead tissue out of a wound

decubitus ulcer

bedsore

decubitus ulcer

bedsore

deep

inside the body

deep vein thrombosis

blood clot in a deep vein

defecation

making a bowel movement

defibrillation

use of electric shock to make the heart start beating, or to correct an abnormal heart rate or rhythm

dementia

mental decline

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

material that makes up the genes

depressant

drug that slows down the action of the central nervous system

dermabrasion

method used to remove scars from the skin

dermatitis

skin inflammation

dermatoautoplasty

skin grafting using skin from another area of the patient's body

dermatofibroma

type of benign skin growth

dermatoheteroplasty

skin grafting using skin from another person

dermatologist

doctor who treats disorders of the skin

dermatome

tool used to cut thin slices of the skin to use as skin grafts

dermatoplasty

surgery to repair the skin

dermis

inner layer of the skin

detached retina

separation of the retina from the middle layer of the eye

determine

find out, see if

deviated septum

when the inner wall separating the two sides of the nose is off to one side

diabetes insipidus

excessive discharge of urine from the body caused by a deficiency in the quantity of antidiuretic hormone being produced in the body

diabetes mellitus

disorder in which there is decreased insulin in the body or the body's insulin is not effective, resulting in high blood sugar, increased thirst and urine, and many other side effects

diagnosis

determination of the cause of a medical problem

diaphoresis

heavy sweating

diaphragm

thin flat muscle that helps with breathing and separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity

diaphragmatocele

bulging of the abdominal organs into the chest area through a hole in the diaphragm

diaphysis

the long part of arm and leg bones

diarrhea

frequent, loose bowel movement

diastole

the time when the heart rests between contractions and fills with blood

digital rectal exam

exam using a finger inside the rectum to feel internal organs such as the prostate gland and uterus

dilation and curettage (D&C)

surgery to remove the contents and inner lining of the uterus after a miscarriage or abortion; procedure is also used to treat abnormal bleeding

dilator

tool used for stretching or enlarging an opening or tube

diplopia

seeing double

Discontinuation of a Trial Subject

A subject's participation in a clinical trial may be stopped by the subject or the investigator at any time. Among other things this may be because of side effects, intercurrent illness or withdrawal of consent.

diskectomy

surgery to remove one of the rings between the bones that make up the spine

dissector

tool used to separate or cut apart tissue

disseminate

scatter or spread

distal

away from the center of the body; distant

distended

stretched out or swollen, such as a full bladder

diuresis

increased discharge of urine

diuretic

drug used to get excess water out of the body and increase urine; "water pill"

diverticulectomy

surgery to remove abnormal pooming off to the colon

diverticulitis

inflammation of abnormal pouches coming off of the colon

diverticulosis

abnormal pouches coming off the colon

Doppler flow studies

use of ultrasonography to see blood flow inside blood vessels

dorsal

having to do with the back of the body

double­blind trial

test or experiment in which neither the person giving the treatment nor the patient knows which treatment the patient is receiving

Down's syndrome

birth disorder in which there is one extra chromosome, mental retardation, and changed appearance of the head, hands, and feet

duct

tube that carries a body fluid

ductus deferens

tube that carries sperm out of the testicle

dull

not sharp

duodenal ulcer

sore in the duodenum

duodenum

first part of the small intestine

dura mater

outer layer of the membranes that surround brain and spinal cord

duritis

inflammation of the dura mater

dyscrasia

disorder, usually of the blood cells

dysentery

inflammation of the intestine, usually the colon, resulting in pain and in blood and mucus in bowel movements

dysmenorrhea

painful menstruation

dyspepsia

trouble digesting food with discomfort after meals

dysphagia

trouble swallowing

dysphasia

difficulty speaking and putting words together

dysphonia

trouble with the voice and speaking

dysplasia

abnormal development or cell growth

dyspnea

trouble breathing

dystocia

difficult childbirth

dysuria

pain when urinating

E

ecchymosis

black and blue mark; bruise

echocardiogram

picture of the heart in motion made using ultrasonography

echoencephalograph y

use of ultrasonography to record the shape of the brain

eclampsia

convulsions in a pregnant woman caused by high blood pressure and other medical problems

ectopic pregnancy

pregnancy growing outside the uterus, often in fallopian tubes

eczema

type of itchy skin rash

edema

swelling caused by fluid held in the tissues

efferent

going away from the center of the body

ejaculation

discharge of semen from the penis during the climax of sexual intercourse

electrocardiogram (ECG)

picture of the electrical action of the heart

electrocardiograph

machine that records the electrical action of the heart

electroencephalogra m (EEG)

picture of brain wave activity

electroencephalograp h

machine that records brain wave activity

elevator

tool used for lifting tissue

embolectomy

surgery to remove a blood clot

embolus

blood clot

embryo

unborn baby from 2 to 8 weeks after it is formed

embryoid

looking like an embryo

embryology

the study of the development of the unborn baby

emesis

vomiting

emetic

drug used to make a person vomit; useful in treating poisoning

emmetropia

normal condition of the eye when light focuses correctly on the retina

emollient

substance that softens the skin

emphysema

disorder in which too much air collects deep in the lungs

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

encephalomyeloradic ulitis

inflammation of the brain, the spinal cord, and the spinal nerve roots

encephalosclerosis

hardening of the brain

endocervicitis

inflammation of the inner lining of the cervix

endocrinologist

doctor who treats disorders of the glands that make hormones

endocrinopathy

disease of the glands that make hormones; hormonal imbalance

endometriosis

growths outside of the uterus made up of the tissues that lines the uterus

endometritis

inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus

endometrium

inner lining of the uterus

endophthalmitis

inflammation of the contents of the eye

endorphin

substance made by the body to stop pain

endoscope

tool used to look into body structures and hollow organs, such as the stomach

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogr aphy (ERCP)

x­ray of the bile and pancreatic ducts made using an endoscope

endosteum

tissue that lines the inside of bone

endotracheal

inside the windpipe

enema

liquid that is injected into the rectum to promote bowel movement

enterorrhaphy

surgery to stitch the intestine

enucleation

surgery to remove the eye

epidermal

having to do with the outer layer of the skin

epidermis

outer layer of skin

epididymis

tubes that stores and carries sperm

epigastric region

area above the navel

epiglottis

flap of skin that keeps food from going down the windpipe

epiglottitis

inflammation of the epiglottis

epilepsy

seizure disorder

epinephrine

hormone made by the adrenal glands that speeds up body organs and helps the body deal with stress

epiphysis

growth area of a long bone

episioperineoplasty

surgery to fix the vulva and perineum

episiorrhaphy

stitching a tear in the vulva

episiotomy

surgical cut in the vagina to keep it from tearing when a baby is being born

epistaxis

nosebleed

epithelial

having to do with the epithelium

epithelioma

benign or malignant growth made up of epithelial tissue

epithelium

type of tissue that covers the outside of the body and makes up the lining and outer layers of most body organs and parts

equivalent

equal, same

erythema

redness

erythrocyte count

the number of erythrocytes in the blood

erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

blood test that measures how long it takes for erythrocytes to sink to the bottom of a tube­ used to check for inflammation in the body

erythrocytes

cells in blood that carry oxygen; red blood cells

erythrocytosis

increase in number of red blood cells

erythroderma

red skin

esophagogastroduod enoscopy

use of an endoscope to look into the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum

esophagoscope

tool used to look into the esophagus

estrogen

female sex hormone

estrogen receptor assay

blood test used to detect tumor cells in patients with breast cancer

etiology

the cause or causes of an illness

eupnea

normal breathing

eustachian tube

tube that connects the middle ear and the throat

eversion

turning inside out

excretion

the way that substances leave the body

exophthalmic

has a bulging eyeball or eyeballs

exophthalmos

bulging of one or both eyeballs

exostosis

bony growth on the surface of a bone

extension

the straight position of an arm or leg

external auditory meatus

opening or passageway between the outside of the ear and the eardrum

external ear

outside part of the ear

external genitalia

sex organs on the outside of the body: penis, scrotum, and urethra in men; vulva, clitoris, and urethra in women

extracorporeal

outside of the body

extravasation

escape of blood from blood vessels and into tissue

F

fallopian tube

tube attached to the uterus down which the egg travels from the ovary to the uterus

fasting blood sugar

blood test used to measure the amount of sugar in the blood after not eating or drinking for a set amount of time

feces

material excreted during bowel movement

femoral

having to do with the thigh area

femoropopliteal bypass

surgery to make a passageway from one artery to another in the leg

femur

thigh bone

fetus

unborn baby from 9 weeks after it is formed until it is born

fibrillation

fast uncontrolled heart beat

fibroid tumor

growth made up of fibrous tissue

fibula

the lower leg bone behind the shin

fimbria

tissue that looks like a fringe on the end of the uterine tubes

fine

having thin jaws or tips, such as a tool used for delicate or small procedures

fissure

crack or groove in tissue

flatus

passing gas

flexion

bent position of the arm or leg

fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA­ABS) test

blood test used to detect syphilis

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

government agency that regulates foods and drugs

forceps

tool with two blades and a handle used for handling tissue or dressings

foreskin

fold of skin that covers the penis and is removed in circumcision

fracture

broken bone

fulguration

use of electric sparks to remove tissue such as tumors

fundus

top of the uterus; or back of the eye

fungal

having to do with fungi

fungal test

test used to detect and identify a fungus

fungi

more than one fungus

fungus

type of living organisms, such as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms, some of which cause infection and some of which look like plants

furuncle

painful skin boil


G

gait

the way a person walks

galactorrhea

too much discharge of milk from the breast

gallbladder

small sack under the liver that holds bile

gamma globulin

type of pron that helps the body fight infection

ganglion

group of nerve cells found outside the central nervous system; or a benign tumor on muscle connective tissue or on a tendon

ganglionectomy

surgery to remove a ganglion

ganglionitis

inflammation of a ganglion

gangrene

death of tissue caused by loss of blood flow and usually followed by infection

gastrectomy

surgery to remove all or part of the stomach

gastric lavage

washing the stomach out

gastric ulcer

sore in the stomach

gastritis

inflammation of the stomach

gastrodynia

pain in the stomach

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the stomach and intestines

gastroscope

tool used to look into the stomach

gastrostomy

surgery to make an opening from the outside of the body into the stomach

gavage

feeding a person through a tube that goes into the stomach

general anesthesia

physical state of unconsciousness and loss of pain sensation caused by anesthetic drugs

generic name

chemical name for a drug

genes

material passed from parent to child that determines the makeup of the body and mind

genetic

having to do with the genes

genital

having to do with the sex organs

genital herpes

disease caused by a herpesvirus in which there are blisters on the genitalia

genitalia

male and female sex organs

gingiva

the gums

gingivectomy

surgery to remove gum tissue

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

gland

tissue that produces a material, such as the saliva or a hormone

glans penis

end of the penis

glaucoma

increased pressure inside the eye that causes visual problems

globulins

proteins in the blood

glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the kidney

glomerulus

place in the kidney where urine is formed

glossitis

inflammation of the tongue

glossopathy

disease of the tongue

glossorrhaphy

surgery to stitch the tongue

glucocorticoids

drugs or natural substances made by the adrenal glands that have many effects on body metabolism, raise sugar level in the blood, and reduce inflammation

glucose

type of sugar found in the blood

glucose tolerance test

test that measures blood sugar levels over a certain amount of time in a patient after he drinks a beverage that contains a measured amount of sugar

glycosuria

sugar in urine

gonad

sex gland: female ovary or male testicle

gonorrhea

type of bacterial infection in the sex organs and sometimes in the skin and joints

gout

disorder in which crystals of uric acid deposit in and around joints, causing pain and arthritis

granulocytopenia

drop in white blood cell count

growth hormone (GH)

hormone made by the pituitary gland that controls the growth of the body

guaiac test

test for blood in stool

gynecologist

doctor who test disorders of the sex organs of women

gynecology

the study of the reproductive system of women

H

hair

thin strands of protein that grow up from the hair follicles

heart

muscle that moves or pumps blood through the body

heart failure

when the heart inadequately pumps blood through the body

heart murmur

swishing sound, heard when listening to the heart through a stethoscope, caused by abnormal flow of blood through the heart

hematemesis

blood in vomit

hematocrit

the percentage of blood made up of red blood cells

hematocytopenia

not enough blood cells

hematologist

doctor who treats blood disorders

hematology

the study of blood

hematoma

pocket of blood caused by bleeding from a broken blood vessel; appears "black and blue"

hematopoiesis

the making of blood cells

hematosalpinx

blood in the uterine tube

hematuria

blood in the urine

hemiparesis

muscle weakness or partial paralysis, usually with loss of feeling, on half of the body

hemiplegia

total loss of muscle movement, usually with loss of feeling, on half of the body

hemodialysis

method used to remove waste material from the blood

hemoglobin (Hgb)

substance that carries oxygen and gives blood its red color

hemolysis

bursting open of red blood cells

hemophilia

genetic defect in which blood clots too slowly

hemorrhage

bleeding, escape of blood from blood vessels

hemorrhoidectomy

surgery to remove hemorrhoids

hemorrhoids

twisted and bulging veins in the rectal area

hemostasis

the stopping of bleeding

hemothorax

blood in the chest cavity

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

hepatoma

growth on the liver

hernia

bulging of an organ through an abnormal opening in a muscle wall

herniated disk

breaking of a ring­shaped pad in the spine, which often pinches a nerve; slipped disk

herniorrhaphy

surgery to fix a hernia

herpes

groups of tiny blisters found on the skin caused by infection with a herpesvirus

heterosexual

person who is attracted to the opposite sex

hiccup

sudden, uncontrolled spasm of the diaphragm

hidradenitis

inflammation of a sweat gland

hip bone

bone at the lower part of the body trunk

hirsutism

abnormal hairiness (in women, an adult male pattern of hair distribution

histology

the study of tissue under the microscope

Hodgkin's disease

a cancer of white blood cells

homosexual

person who is attracted to the same sex

hordeolum

infection of the oil glands of the eyelids

hormone

substance made by a gland in the body that regulates another part of the body

Hospital Formulary

list of drugs and their proper doses maintained by each hospital

humeral

having to do with the upper arm bone

humerus

upper arm bone

hydrocephalus

increase in fluid in usually causing pressure on the brain; water on the brain

hydronephrosis

abnormal collection of urine in the kidney causing a swollen kidney

hydrosalpinx

fluid in the uterine tube

hymen

fold of tissue at the opening of the vagina

hymenectomy

surgery to remove the hymen

hypercalcemia

too much calcium in the blood

hypercapnia

too much carbon dioxide in the blood

hyperesthesia

very sensitive to touch

hyperglycemia

too much sugar in the blood

hyperkalemia

too much potassium in the blood

hyperkinesis

overactive movements

hyperopia

farsightedness

hyperplasia

abnormal increase in the number of normal cells

hypertension

high blood pressure

hypertensive heart disease

heart problems caused by high blood pressure

hyperthyroidism

overactive thyroid gland

hyperventilation

breathing that is too fast

hypnotic

drug used to make a person sleep

hypocalcemia

not enough calcium in the blood

hypocapnia

not enough carbon dioxide on the blood

hypochondriac region

area to the right or left above the naval

hypodermic

under the skin

hypodermic injection

injection of a substance under the skin

hypoesthesia

state of having less than normal sensitivity to stimulation

hypogastric region

area below the naval

hypoglycemia

not enough sugar in the blood

hypokalemia

not enough potassium in the blood

hypopnea

weak, slow breathing

hypospadias

birth defect in which the urethra opens under the penis instead of the tip of the penis

hypotension

low blood pressure

hypothermia

low body temperature

hypothyroidism

underactive thyroid gland

hypotonia

decreased muscle tone

hypoventilation

too little air entering the lungs

hypoxemia

not enough oxygen in the blood

hypoxia

not enough oxygen in the tissues

hysteratresia

birth defect in which the uterus does not open to the outside of the body

hysterectomy

surgery to remove the uterus

hysteropexy

surgery to fasten down the uterus in its normal position

hysterosalpingo­oopho rectomy

surgery to remove all of the internal female reproductive organs

hysterosalpingography

taking an x­ray of the uterus and the uterine tubes using a dye to outline them

hysteroscope

tool used to look into the uterus

I

iatrology

the science of medicine

icterus

too much bile in the blood causing a yellow color to the skin, gums, eye, and other tissues

idiopathic

of unknown cause

idiosyncrasy

rare side effect of a drug; unusual reaction of a person to a drug

ileocecal

having to do with the ileum and the cecum

ileum

third and last part of the small intestine

ileus

blockage of the intestines

iliac regions

areas to the right and left below the naval

iliofemoral

having to do with the hip and thigh bones

ilium

wing­shaped upper part of the hip bone

immune globulins

proteins that help protect the body from infection and foreign matter

immune system

the cells and substances that protect the body from infection and foreign matter

immunity

protection against infection

immunodeficiency

weakness of the immune system

impedance plethysmography

test used to find blood clots

impetigo

skin infection

impotent

not able to have or to keep an erection during sexual intercourse

incontinence

not able to control bladder or bowel actions

induration

hard spot

inferior

toward the lower part of the body

inflammation

swelling, redness, and pain in tissues caused by injury or damage

influenza

the flu

infusion

placing a liquid substance into a vein by letting it flow in with gravity

inhalant

substance given through the nose or mouth to reach the lungs

insulin

the hormone that controls blood sugar levels

interictal

happening between seizures

intermittent claudication

pain and weakness in the legs when walking is impossible and then goes away after a rest

intervertebral disks

pads found between each ring (bone) in the spine

intracavity injection

injection of a substance into a body cavity

intracoronary thrombolytic therapy

injection of medicine to dissolve a blood clot in an artery of the heart

intracranial

inside the skull

intradermally

given into the skin

intradermal injection

injection of a substance into the skin

intradermal tests

allergy tests performed by injecting allergy­causing substances underneath the skin to see if they cause a reaction

intramuscular injection (IM)

injection of a substance into a muscle (e.g., upper arm or backside)

intraocular

within the eye

intrathecal injection

injection of a substance into the space surrounding the spinal cord (i.e., spinal canal)

intravenous (IV) injection

injection of a substance into a vein

intravenous pyelogram

x­ray of the kidneys and ureters using dye that is injected into the blood

intussusception

telescoping of the intestine into itself

inversion

turning inward

investigation

study

iritis

inflammation of the iris

irritable bowel syndrome

bowel disorder in which there is pain and diarrhea or constipation

ischium

lower part of the pelvic bone, part you sit on

islets of Langerhans

tissue in the pancreas that makes and discharges insulin and other hormones

isthmus

thin strip of tissue that joins two parts of the body


J

jaundice

too much bile in the blood causing a yellow color to the skin, gums, eye, and other tissues

jejunum

second and longest part of the small intestine


K

Kaposi's sarcoma

purple or brown cancerous pimples on the skin, often associated with AIDS

karyocyte

cell with a center

karyoplasm

material inside the center of a cell

keloid

type of scar tissue that keeps growing inside

keratin

protein that is found in the hair, nails, and skin

keratoplasty

surgery to fix the cornea

ketone bodies

substances that increase in the blood and urine when too much body fat and too many carbohydrates are

being broken down, usually because of starvation or serious, untreated diabetes mellitus

kidney

one of two organs in the lower back that filter blood and make urine

knife

tool with a sharp blade used for cutting tissue

kyphosis

hunchback

L

labyrinth

structure in the inner ear

labyrinthectomy

surgery to remove the inner ear

labyrinthitis

inflammation of the inner ear

laceration

torn, ragged cut

lacrimal

having to do with the tears

lacrimal duct

passageway in the eyelids that drains tears; a type of tear duct

lactating

making milk

lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)

substance measured in a blood test to assess damage to heart and other organs

lactogenic

causing the making of breast milk

lactorrhea

too much discharge of milk from the breast

laminectomy

surgery to remove the top of vertebra

laparoscope

tool used to look into the abdominal cavity

laparotomy

surgery to make an opening into the wall of the stomach to look inside with a laparoscope

large intestine

the bowel between the small intestine and the anus, including the cecum, colon, and rectum

laryngeal

having to do with the voice box

laryngectomy

surgery to remove the voice box

laryngitis

inflammation of the voice box

laryngocentesis

surgery to puncture the voice box

laryngoplasty

surgery to fix the voice box

laryngoscope

tool used to look into the voice box

laryngospasm

sudden, uncontrolled cramp in the voice box

laryngectomy

surgery to make an opening into the voice box

laryngotracheobronchitis

inflammation of the larynx, windpipe, and bronchi; croup

larynx

voice box

laser angioblast

using a laser light to open blocked arteries

lateral

toward or having to do with the side of the body

latex agglutination test

blood test used to detect antibodies

laxative

drug used to stop constipation

LE (lupus erythematosus)­cell test

blood test used to detect the presence of a certain type of white blood cell seen in people with lupus erythematosus and similar disorders

legionnaires' disease

serious disorder caused by bacterial infection in which there is high fever, stomach pain, headache, and pneumonia

leiodermia

disorder in which the skin is too smooth and shiny

leiomyoma

smooth muscle growth

leiomyosarcoma

cancer of smooth muscle

lens

structure in the eye that is normally clear and helps to focus light coming into the eye

lesion

abnormal area of tissue, such as a wound, sore, rash, or boil

leukemia

cancer of white blood cells

leukocoria

white pupil

leukocyte

one of the infection­fighting cells in the blood and body tissues; white blood cells

leukocyte count

number of white blood cells in the blood

leukocytosis

increase in number of white blood cells in the blood

leukoderma

white skin

leukokoria

white pupil

libido

sexual desire

ligament

elastic tissue that connects bone or cartilage

lipid

fat

lipid tests

blood tests that measure how much fat is in the blood

lipoid

fatty

lipoma

growth made up of fat cells

lipoprotein electrophoresis

blood test that measures the amounts of fat and protein in the blood

lithotripsy

surgery or other method to crush a stone

liver

large organ that helps in many body functions, including digestion, metabolism, and storage of substances

lobar pneumonia

bacterial infection of one or more sections of the lung

lobectomy

surgery to remove a section of the lung

lochia

normal discharge from the vagina for 1 to 2 weeks after childbirth

long bone

bone that is long and slender, such as a leg or arm bone

lordosis

forward curving of the spine, causing saddle back or sway back

Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

muscle disorder

lower GI (gastrointestinal) series

x­ray using a dye given as an enema to outline the large intestine

lumbar puncture

spinal tap using a needle to remove spinal fluid for testing from the lower back

lumbar region

lower back of the body

lumbar vertebrae

bones of the spine in the lower back

lumen

the space inside a tube­like body structure, such as a blood vessel

lung lobe

one of five sections of the two lungs

lungs

the two main organs for breathing

lupus erythematosus (LE)

chronic disorders of connective tissue in which there can be skin rash, arthritis, kidney problems, and anemia, among other problems

lymph

clear liquid tissue

lymph node

tissue that filters disease germs from the blood; also called a lymph gland

lymphadenitis

inflammation of the lymph nodes

lymphangiography

x­ray of the lymph nodes

lymphocyte

type of white blood cell

lymphoid tissue

tissue that contains lymphocytes

lymphoma

cancerous growth made up of lymphoid tissue, particularly lymphocytes

M

macro­

describes something that is large or long

macule

flat, colored spot on the skin

magnetic resonance imagining (MRI)

the use of magnetic waves to look at soft tissues of the body

malignant

cancerous

mallet

hammer­like tool used for striking objects

mammary glands

milk­producing tissue in the breasts

mammary papilla

breast nipple

mammogram

x­ray of the breast

mammoplasty

surgery to reconstruct the breast

mandible

lower jaw bone

Mantoux test

skin test used to check for tuberculosis

mastalgia

pain in the breast

mastectomy

surgery to remove a breast

mastitis

inflammation of the mammary gland or of the breast

mastoid cells

air spaces inside the mastoid process

mastoid process

protruding part of a bone located in the skull behind the ear

mastoidectomy

surgery to remove the mastoid process or mastoid cells

mastoiditis

inflammation of the air spaces in the mastoid process that communicate with the middle ear

mastoidotomy

surgery to cut into the mastoid process

mastoptosis

drooping breasts

maxilla

upper jaw bone

maxillectomy

surgery to remove the upper jaw bone

maxillitis

inflammation of the upper jaw bone

meconium

first stool of the newborn

medial

toward or having to do with the middle of the body

medications

medicines, drugs

mediastinum

tissue and organs in the middle of the chest between the two lungs

medulla oblongata

part of the brain that controls breathing, blood pressure, and other important body functions; brain stem

meibomian cyst

pimple on the eyelid caused by an inflamed gland (stye)

melanin

material that makes the color of the skin and hair

melanoma

cancerous black growth on the skin

melasma

a blotchy brown stain on the skin, usually over the cheeks, forehead, or neck; often associated with pregnancy, menopause, or the use of oral contraceptives

menarche

time in life when a girl starts having a menstrual period

Meniere's disease

disorder of the inner ear in which there is dizziness, ringing in the ears, and loss of hearing

meninges

three­layered tissue that covers the brain and spinal cord

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

meningocele

bulging of the meninges through a hole in bone

meningomyeloradiculitis

inflammation of the meninges and roots of the spinal nerves

meniscectomy

surgery to remove a meniscus

meniscitis

inflammation of the meninges and roots of the spinal nerves

meniscus

one of two crescent­shaped pads inside the knee joint

menometrorrhagia

too much bleeding from the uterus during menstruation and at other times

menopause

time in life when a woman stops having a menstrual period

menses

discharge of blood and tissue from the uterus that happens about every 4 weeks in women who are not pregnant

menstrual

having to do with menstruation

menstrual period

the time of menstruation

menstruation

discharge of blood and tissue from the uterus that happens about every 4 weeks in women who are not pregnant

metabolism

total of all the important actions in the body that keep it alive

metacarpal bones

.bones of the hand between the wrist and fingers

metastasis

spread of disease from one place in the body to another place in the body that is not nearby

metatarsal bones

foot bones

metrorrhea

discharge from the uterus

micro­

describes something that is small or delicate

microcephalus

person with a very small head

micturate

urinate

middle ear

the space between the eardrum and the inner ear

migraine

type of severe headache that occurs periodically and is often associated with nausea, vomiting, sight or hearing sensitivities

miotic

substance that makes the pupil of the eye smaller (e.g., narcotic)

miscarriage

loss of an unborn baby from the uterus before it is able to survive outside the mother's body

mitral commissurotomy

surgery to repair the mitral valve to enlarge the opening between the two parts of the left side of the heart

mitral valve

valve between two chambers on the left side of the heart

molecular pharmacology

the study of the action between two parts of the left side of the heart

monoparesis

weak muscle movement and loss of feeling in one arm or one leg

monoplegia

loss of movement and loss of feeling in one arm or one leg

motility

ability to move

mouth

opening through which food passes into the body to be digested

mucopurulent

slimy and with pus in it

mucus

slimy fluid

multigravida

women who has been pregnant two or more times

multipara

woman who has given birth two or more times

multiple sclerosis (MS)

slowly worsening disorder of the central nervous system that causes weakness, incoordination, numbness, and probh talking and seeing

muscle

type of tissue that causes movement

muscular dystrophy (MD)

genetic problem resulting in muscle weakness and atrophy

myasthenia

muscle weakness

myasthenia gravis

disorder that causes muscles to get tired quickly

mydriatic

substance that makes the pupil of the eye bigger

myelogram

x­ray of the spinal cord using dye that is injected into the spinal area

myeloma

cancer of the types of cells normally found in bone marrow

myelomalacia

softening of the spinal cord

myocardial infarction (MI)

heart attack

myocardial ischemia

not enough blood going to the heart

myocarditis

inflammation of the heart muscle

myocardium

muscle of the heart

myoma

growth made up of muscle tissue

myomectomy

surgery to remove a myoma or a piece of muscle

myometritis

inflammation of the muscle of the uterus

myometrium

muscle of the uterus

myopathy

muscle disorder

myopia

nearsightedness

myoplasty

surgery to fix a muscle

myorrhaphy

surgery to stitch a muscle

myringitis

inflammation of the eardrum

myringoplasty

surgery to fix a ruptured eardrum

myxedema

disorder caused by lack of thyroid hormone in which areas of the skin are swollen

N

nail

tough plate of tissue covering the top of the end of each finger and toe

narcotic

strong habit­forming drug that stops pain and depresses the central nervous system

nasal

having to do with the nose

nasal septum

wall that divides the nose into two sides

nasogastric tube

tube that goes through the nose and into the stomach; used for feeding liquid food to a patient

nasolacrimal duct

tube that drains tears from the eye into the nose; tear duct

nasopharyngeal

having to do with the nasopharynx

nasopharyngitis

inflammation of the nasopharynx

natal

having to do with childbirth

nausea

sick to the stomach

nebulizer

device used to turn liquids into mists for breathing treatments

necrosis

death of tissue or skin

neonate

newborn infant

neonatology

the study of disorders of newborn infants

neoplasm

new growth that is not normal; tumor

nephrectomy

surgery to remove a kidney

nephritis

kidney inflammation

nephroblastoma

type of malignant kidney tumor

nephrogram

x­ray of the kidney

nephrohypertrophy

overgrowth of the kidney

nephrolithiasis

stones in the kidney

nephroma

growth in the kidney

nephromegaly

overgrowth of the kidney

nephropexy

surgery to tie down a kidney

nephroptosis

sagging kidney

nephrosonography

use of ultrasonography

nerve

string­like tissue that carries messages to and away from the brain and spinal cord and tells muscles to move

nervous tissue

type of tissue that makes up the central nervous system and nerves

neuralgia

nerve pain

neurectomy

surgery to remove part of a nerve

neuritis

inflammation of a nerve

neuroarthropathy

disorder of the joints and the central nervous system or nerves

neuroblast

cell that will develop into a nerve

neurohypophysis

part of the brain that discharges hormones including oxytocin and vasopressin

neuroid

like a nerve

neurologist

doctor who treats disorders of the central nervous system and nerves

neurolysis

surgery to open the covering of a nerve to destroy a nerve

neuroma

growth made up of nerve tissue

neuropathy

a disturbance in the function of the brain or spinal cord that may affect the nerves and muscles of the body

neuropharmacologic drug

drug that acts on the nervous system

neuroplasty

surgery to fix a nerve

neurorrhaphy

stitching a cut nerve

neurosis

mental and emotional disorder

neurotomy

surgery to make a break in a nerve

nevus

mole; birthmark

nocturia

too much urination at night

norepinephrine

hormone discharged from nerves, the brain, and the adrenal glands that helps the body deal with stress and low blood pressure

nucleus

center of a cell

nulligravida

woman that has never given birth

nullipara

woman that has never given birth to an infant that lived

nyctalopia

difficulty seeing at night


O

obstetrician

doctor who takes care of pregnant women and delivers babies

obstetrics

the study of pregnant women and childbirth

obstructive sleep apnea

breathing problems while sleeping because the airways collapse or get closed off

occlude

close off

oculomycosis

fungus infection in the eye

oculus dexter (OD)

right eye

oculus sinister (OS)

left eye

oculus uterque (OU)

each eye

oligomenorrhea

occasional and irregular menstruation that occurs every 35 days to 6 months

oligospermia

deceased amount of sperm in semen

oliguria

decreased amount of urine

omphalitis

inflammation of the belly button

omphalocele

a birth defect in which there is bulging of the intestine through the body wall in the belly button region

oncogenic

causing tumors to form

oncologist

doctor who treats cancer

oncology

cancer

onychectomy

surgery to remove a nail

onychocryptosis

ingrown nail

onychomalacia

softening of the nails

onychomycosis

fungal infection of the nail

onychophagia

nail biting

oophorectomy

surgery to remove the uterus and ovaries

oophoritis

inflammation of the ovary

oophorohysterectomy

surgery to remove the uterus and ovaries

opportunity

chance

ophthalmalgia

pain in the eye

opthalmic

having to do with the eye

ophthalmologist

doctor who treats eye disorders

ophthalmology

the study of eye disorders

ophthalmopathy

disorder of the eye

ophthalmorrhagia

bleeding from the eye

optic

having to do with the eye

optic nerve.

nerve that carries visual messages from the retina to the brain

optician

.person who makes glasses

optometer

.tool used in eye examinations

optometry

the study of the eye and vision

oral

having to do with the mouth

oral administration

giving a drug by mouth

orchidopexy

.surgery to tie down a testicle in the scrotum

orchiectomy

surgery to remove one or both testicles

orchiepididymitis

inflammation of a testicle and epididymis

orchiopexy

surgery to tie down a testicle in the scrotum

orchioplasty

surgery to fix a testicle

orchitis

inflammation of a testicle

organ

.two or more kinds of tissues that work together to make up a part of the body with a unique function

orgasm

the climax of sexual excitement

orthodontist

dentist who treats teeth and jaw disorders

orthopedics

the study of the bones and joints

orthopedist

doctor who treats bone and joint disorders

orthopnea

difficult breathing except when sitting up

orthotist

person who puts on and teaches the use braces and splints

ossicles

bones of the middle ear that carry sound

osteoarthritis (OA)

disorder, which is seen mostly in older persons, in which the joints become painful and stuff

osteoblasts

cell that makes bone

osteocarcinoma

.bone cancer growth

osteochondritis

inflammation of bone and cartilage

osteoclasis

surgery to break a bone

osteocyte

bone cell

osteofibroma

benign tumor of bone and connective tissue

osteogenesis imperfecta

genetic disorder in which the bones are delicate and break easily

osteomalacia

soft bones

osteomyelitis

infection and inflammation of bone

osteonecrosis

death of bone tissue

osteoplasty

surgery to fix a bone

osteoporosis

loss of calcium from bone tissue resulting in bones that break easily; prevalent in postmenopausal women

osteosarcoma

cancer of bone

osteotome

chisel­like tool used for cutting or marking bone

otalgia

earache

otitis

inflammation of the ear

otitis externa

.inflammation of the outer ear canal

otitis interna

inflammation of the inner ear

otitis media

inflammation of the middle ear

otologist

doctor who treats disorders of the ear

otology

the study of the ear

otomastoiditis

inflammation of the ear together with mastoiditis

otomycosis

fungus infection in the outer ear canal

otopyorrhea

discharge of pus from the ear

otorhinolaryngologist

doctor who treats disorders of the ear, nose, and throat

otosclerosis

bone deposits in the inner ear which fuses the bones together

otoscope

tool used to look into the ear

ovaries

more than one ovary

ovulation

discharge of an egg from the ovary

ovum

the female sex cell that joins with the male sperm to make a zygote and eventually a baby; egg

oximeter

tool used to measure the amount of oxygen in the blood

oxytocin

hormone made by the brain that makes the uterus cramp and milk come out of the breasts

P

pachyderma

thickening of the skin

palate

roof of the mouth

palatitis

inflammation of the roof of the mouth

palatoplasty

surgery to fix the roof of the mouth

pallor

pale color of the skin

palmar

having to do with the palm of the hand

pancreas

organ that makes hormones, including insulin, and digestive juices

pancreatic

having to do with the pancreas

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

panplegia

total loss of muscle control and feeling

pansinusitis

inflammation of the all the sinuses on one side of the body

Pap test

microscope test used to detect virus infection of the cervix or cancer of the vagina, cervix, or lining of the uterus

papule

pimple

para

woman who has given birth

paralysis

loss of ability to move muscles with loss of feeling also

paranasal sinuses

air cavities inside the bones of the face around the nose

paraplegia

complete loss of muscle control and total loss of feeling from the waist downward

parasympatholytic

drug that blocks a kind of nerve

parasympathomimetic

drug that imitates the action of a kind of nerve

parathyroid gland

gland that makes and discharges a hormone that helps control the amount of calcium in the blood

parathyroidectomy

surgery to remove the parathyroid gland

parathyroidoma

growth or cancer on the parathyroid gland

parenteral administration.

giving a substance by injection rather by mouth

paresis

muscle weakness; partial paralysis

parietal layer

layer of tissue in the wall of a cavity

parietal layer of the pericardium

layer of tissue in the sack around the heart

Parkinson's disease

disorder of the central nervous system, seen usually in older persons, in which there is muscle weakness, trembling, sweating

paronychia

inflammation around the nail

paroxysm

sudden worsening of an illness; or a spasm or seizure

partial thromboplastin time (PTT)

a test of blood clotting time used to measure substances that help the blood to clot

participate

take part

parturition

childbirth

patch test

allergy test performed by putting an allergy­causing material on the skin to see if it causes a reaction

patella

kneecap

patellectomy

surgery to remove the kneecap

patent

open

pathogenic

causing disease

pathologist

doctor who studies the changes in the body and its tissues caused by disease

pathology

the study of the changes in the body and body tissue caused by disease

pediculosis

infection with lice, which are tiny bugs

pelvic bone

hip bone

pelvic cavity

space where the urinary bladder, certain reproductive organs, part of the large intestine, and the rectum are found

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

infection of any of the female reproductive organs inside the pelvic space, including the uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries

pelvimetry

x­ray of the pelvis of the mother to make sure her pelvis is large enough for the body to come through during birth

pelvis of the kidney

place where urine leaves the kidney

penicillin

type of antibiotic

penile implant

artificial device put into the penis to help a man get an erection

penis

outer male sex organ

peptic ulcer

sore in the stomach or in the lining of the stomach

percussion

tapping of a body surface with the fingers to check the organs under the skin by the sound that is made

percutaneous

through the skin

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

procedure in which a small balloon is blown up inside the blood vessel to open up a blood vessel

pericardiotomy

surgery to make an opening into the pericardium

pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium

pericardium

two­layer sack of tissue around the heart

perimetritis

inflammation of the perimetrium

perimetrium

outer layer of tissue around the uterus

perineorrhaphy

stitching a tear in the perineum

perineum

area between the vulva and rectum in women and between the scrotum and rectum in men

periosteum

layer of tissue that covers bone

pertussis

whooping cough

petechia

tiny red or purple spot on skin or other tissue caused by bleeding

phacoemulsification

method of removing a cataract by using sound waves to break it up

phalanges

finger and toe bones

pharmacist

person licensed to prepare and dispense drugs and fill prescriptions

pharmacodynamics

the study of how drugs act on the body

pharmacokinetics

the study of the way a drug enters and leaves the blood and tissues over time

pharyngitis

sore throat

pharynx

area between the mouth and esophagus that performs the swallowing action; throat

phenothiazines

group of drugs used for the control of mental illness

phenylketonuria (PKU)

dangerous buildup of toxic materials in the body resulting from a genetic defect that affects metabolism

phlebectomy

surgery to remove part or all of a vein

phlebography

x­ray of a vein or veins using a dye to outline them

phlebotomy

nicking or putting a needle into a vein to remove blood

phonocardiogram

detailed record of heart sounds

photophobia

irritation of the eye caused by light

photoretinitis

inflammation of the back of the eye caused by strong light

phrenic

having to do with the mind; or having to do with a diaphragm

phrenopathy

mental disorder

pia mater

inner layer of the meninges

pinna

outer flap of the ear

pituitary gland

gland that sits under the brain and makes many hormones, including some that control other glands

placebo

a pretend treatment (with no drug in it) that is compared in a clinical trial with a drug to test if the drug has a real effect

placenta

tissues that provide food for the unborn baby

plantar

having to do with the sole of the foot

plasma

liquid part of blood where cells float

plasmapheresis

removing plasma from blood that has been drawn from a person

platelet count.

the number of platelets in the blood

platelets

small structures in blood that help it to clot

pleura

thin tissue that covers the lungs and inner walls of the chest

pleural effusion

fluid in the chest cavity

pleurisy

inflammation of the pleura with discharge in the chest cavity, making breathing painful

pleuropexy

surgery to fix the film that covers the lungs

pneumatocele

bulging of the lungs through an abnormal opening

pneumobronchotomy

incision into the lungs

pneumoconiosis

dust in the lungs

Pneumocystis carinii

type of parasite or fungus that causes pneumonia in infants and weakened patients, such as those with AIDS

pneumonectomy

surgery to remove a lung

pneumonia

inflammation of the lungs in which the lungs become heavy

pneumonitis

inflammation of the lungs

pneumothorax.

free air in the chest cavity

podiatrist

foot doctor

poliomyelitis

infection with a virus in which there can be fever, headache, and stiff neck followed by paralysis and wasting away of muscles

polyarteritis

inflammation of many arteries

polycystic kidney

kidney with many cysts in it

polydipsia

too much thirst

polymyositis

inflammation of more than one muscle

polyneuritis

inflammation of several nerves

polyp

type of growth that sticks up out of tissue

polypectomy

surgery to remove a polyp

polyuria

too much urine being made

pons

part of the brain through which the two sides and different areas of the brain communicate

porphyria

disturbance of metabolism that can be seen as disorders of the skin or other organs

posterior

having to do with the back of the body

posterior lobe of the pituitary

part of the pituitary gland that discharges oxytocin, vasopressin, and some proteins

postictal

happening after a seizure

postpartum

after childbirth

potentiation

increase in drug action from using two drugs together instead of using each drug alone

preeclampsia

serious problem of pregnancy in which there is high blood pressure and excess fluid in the tissues of the mother

pregnancy

carrying an unborn baby

preictal

happening before a seizure

premature infant

infant born before it has fully developed; weight less than 5.5 lbs

prepuce

fold of skin (foreskin) that covers the penis and is removed in circumcision

presbycusis

loss of hearing because of old age

presbyopia

problems with vision because of old age

primigravida

woman going through her first pregnancy

primipara

woman who has one pregnancy that lasted at least 20 weeks

proctologist

doctor who treats disorders of the rectum and anus

proctology.

the study of the disorders of the rectum and anus

proctoptosis

fallen anus protruding from the body

proctoscope

tool used to look into the rectum

progestins

type of female hormones that prepare the uterus for pregnancy

prognosis

forecast of the probable outcome of a disease

prolapsed uterus

fallen uterus protruding from the body

prone

lying face down

prostate gland

gland that makes fluid that aids movement of sperm

prostate­specific antigen (PSA)

substance in blood that is measured to check for prostatic cancer

prostatectomy

surgery to remove all or part of the prostate gland

prostatic cancer

cancer of the prostate gland

prostatitis

inflammation of the prostate gland

prostatocystitis

inflammation of the neck of the bladder and the bladder

prostatolith

stone in the prostate gland

prostatorrhea

discharge of liquid from the prostate

prosthesis

artificial body part

prothrombin time (PT)

a test of blood clotting time used to measure substances that help the blood to clot

proximal

nearest

pruritus

itchiness

pseudocyesis

false pregnancy

psoriasis

scaly skin rash

psychiatry

the study of mental disorders

psychogenic

caused by the mind (rather than the body)

psychologist

doctor who treats disorders of the mind, thoughts, and behavior

psychology

the study of mental action and behavior

psychopathy

any disorder of the mind

psychosis

severe mental disorder; craziness

psychosomatic

having a connection between the mind and physical symptoms

pterygium

unusual fold of film on the eye

puberty

years when the sex organs mature

puerpera

a woman who has just given birth to an infant

puerperal

right after childbirth

puerperium

the first 3 to 6 weeks after childbirth

pulmonary

having to do with the lungs

pulmonary edema

fluid in the lungs

pulmonary embolism

blood clot in the lungs

pulmonary neoplasm

lung tumor

pupil

black spot in the middle of the eye, which is the opening in the center of the iris

pupillometer

tool that measures how wide the pupil is

purgative

drug used to cause the bowels to empty

purified protein derivative (PPD)

substance used in tuberculosis skin test

purpura

small purple­red marks in skin or other tissue caused by bleeding

pustule

pimple filled with pus

pyelitis

inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis

pyelogram

x­ray of the kidney and ureters

pyelolithotomy

surgery to remove a kidney stone

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis

pyeloplasty

surgery to fix the pelvis of the kidney

pyelostomy

surgery to make an opening into the pelvis of the kidney

pyloric sphincter

ring of muscles between the stomach and the small intestine

pyloromyotomy

surgery to cut muscles of a pyloric sphincter that is too narrow

pyloroplasty

surgery to fix the pyloric sphincter

pylorus

the opening of the stomach into the small intestine

pyosalpinx

pus in the uterine tubes

pyuria

pus in the urine

Q

quadriplegia

loss of muscle movement and loss of feeling in both arms and legs


R

rachiotomy

surgery to cut into a bone or bones of the spine

rachischisis

birth defect in which there is a groove in the spine

radial keratotomy

surgery to fix nearsightedness

radiculitis

inflammation of a spinal nerve root

radioimmunoassay (RIA)

laboratory method to measure a substance, such as a hormone

radius

one of the two lower arm bones

rectal administration

giving a substance by putting it into the rectum

rectocele

bulging of the rectum into the vagina

rectouterine pouch

pouch in the area between the uterus and the rectum

red blood cell (RBC)

a cell in blood that carries oxygen

red blood cell count

the number of red blood cells in the blood

red blood cell morphology

the size and shape of individual red blood cells as seen under a microscope

remission

condition that occurs when signs of an illness are decreased or gone

renal

having to do with the kidney

renal biopsy

removing a piece of kidney tissue to look at it under a microscope

renal calculi

kidney stones

renal pelvis

place where urine leaves the kidney

renal transplant

kidney transplant

renogram

x­ray to check kidney function by measuring how fast a dye passes through the kidneys and to the urinary bladder

reproduction

making babies

reproductive

having to do with reproduction

resectoscope

tool used to remove or biopsy tissue from the urinary bladder, prostate, or urethra

retina

innermost layer of the eye

retinal

having to do with the retina

retinal photocoagulation

use of a laser light to treat disorders of the retina or tumors in the eye

retinitis pigmentosa

eye disorder in which the retinal atrophies and vision gradually worsens

retinoblastoma

cancer in the eye growing off of the retina

retractor

tool used for holding back tissue

retrograde pyelogram

x­ray of the kidney and ureter made by injecting dye backward into the ureter

Reye's syndrome

serious disorder of children, which often occurs after a viral infection, affecting the brain, liver, and other body organs

rhabdomyoma

benign tumor of a muscle

rhabdomyosarcom a

cancer of a muscle

rheumatic fever

bacterial disease in which there is fever and inflammation of the heart, blood vessels, and joints

rheumatic heart disease

damage to the heart caused by rheumatic fever, especially deformed heart valves

rheumatoid factor

substance in blood that is measured to check for rheumatoid arthritis

rhinitis

inflammation of the nose

rhinomycosis

fungus infection in the nose

rhinoplasty

surgery to fix the nose

rhinorrhagia

nosebleed

rhinorrhea

runny nose

rhizotomy

surgery to cut apart a nerve root

rhytidectomy

surgery to remove wrinkles

rhytidoplasty

surgery to remove wrinkles from the face

rongeur

tool used for cutting hard tissue, such as bone

S

sacrum

large triangle­shaped bone at the bottom of the spine just above the tailbone

sagittal plane

divides the body into a right and left side

saliva

liquid in the mouth that helps with swallowing food; spit

salivary glands

glands that make saliva

salpingectomy

surgery to remove the uterine tube

salpingitis

inflammation of the uterine tubes

salpingo­oophorecto my

surgery to remove an ovary and uterine tube

salpingocele

uterine tube bulging out of an abnormal opening

salpingocyesis

pregnancy growing in the uterine tube

salpingostomy

surgery to make an opening into or to open a blockage of a uterine tube

salpinx

tube down which the egg travels from the ovary to the uterus

sarcoma

cancer of connective tissue cells

saw

tool with a notched blade used for cutting

scabies

itchy skin infection by a microscopic bug called a mite; mange

scapule

shoulder blade

Schick test

skin test used to detect diphtheria

sciatica

pain running down from the lower back to the buttocks to the back or side of the leg

scissors

tool with two sharp blades used for cutting tissue

sclera

outer protective layer of the eye; "whites of the eyes"

scleral buckling

surgery to fix a detached retina

scleroderma

hardening and thickening of the skin

sclerokeratitis

inflammation of the sclera and the cornea

scleromalacia

softening of the sclera seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

sclerotomy

surgery to cut into the sclera

scoliosis

S­shaped (side­to­side) curve of the spine

scratch test

allergy test performed by putting a small amount of allergy­causing material on small skin patches to see if it causes a reaction

scrotum

pouch that holds the testicles

sebaceous gland

gland that discharges oil into the skin

seborrhea

very oily skin

sedation

calmness

sedative

drug used to relax a person without making the person sleepy

seizure

sudden, uncontrolled muscle spasms and loss of consciousness resulting from abnormal brain function

self­retaining

stays in place without being held

semen

fluid containing, sperm, which is discharged from the penis during the climax of sexual intercourse

semen analysis

test used to count and examine the sperm cells

semicircular canals

channels in the labyrinth of the ear

semilunar valves

valves that control the flow of blood out of the heart by opening and closing with each heartbeat

septoplasty

surgery to fix the wall inside the nose

septotomy

incision into the wall inside the nose

serrations

small grooves in the edges or tips of tools that help to hold tissue

serum

clear liquid part of blood

serum bilirubin

blood test used to detect liver disorder

serum calcium

blood test used to find out how much calcium is in the blood

serum creatine kinase

blood test used to measure creatine

serum enzyme test

blood test used to detect the presence of certain chemicals discharges into the blood from dying heart muscle

serum phosphorus

blood test used to measure the amount of phosphorus present

serum test.

blood test used to measure the amount of endocrine material in the blood

sexually transmitted disease (STD)

disorder spread by sexual contact

sharp

with an edge or tip that cuts

shingles

painful, fluid­filled blisters caused by herpesvirus infection

shunt

artificial or natural channel running between two other channels

sialolith

stone in a salivary gland or duct

sickle cell anemia

genetic defect of hemoglobin causing red blood cells to change shape; symptoms include pain in the joints and stomach, and ulcers on the legs

side effect

an effect of a drug that is not related to the reason the drug is used

sigmoid colon

the lower part of the colon just before the rectum

sigmoidoscope

tool used to look into the sigmoid colon

single­blind trial

test or experiment in which the person giving treatment, but not the patient, knows which treatment the patient is receiving

sinusotomy

incision into the sinus

sleep apnea

breathing problems while sleeping

slipped disk

bulging out of a pad between bones of the spine, which often causes pinched nerve roots

small intestine

the bowel between the stomach and the large intestine, including the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

smooth

without teeth or grooves; not rough

snare

tool with a wire loop used for removing tissue growth

somatic

having to do with the body

somatogenic

caused by the body (rather than the mind)

somatopathy

disorder of the body as opposed to the mind

spasm

a muscle contraction that produces pain and interferes with use of the muscle

specific gravity

test used to measure the amount of solid material and minerals in a liquid, such as the urine

speculum

tools used to stretch and hold open an opening into a body channel, such as the nose or vagina

sperm

the male sex cell that joins with a female egg to make a zygote and eventually a baby

sphygmocardiograph

tool used to record arterial blood pressure

sphygmomanometer

tool for measuring blood pressure

spina bifida

birth defect in which the spine does not develop fully and close up

spinal cavity

space inside the spinal column where the spinal cord is found

spinal cord

the cord of nerve cells and nerve fibers running down the spine that helps guide messages to and from the brain

spirometer

tool used to measure the amount of air going into and out of the lungs during breathing

spleen

largest lymph organ in the body

splenectomy

surgery to remove the spleen

splenomegaly

enlarged spleen

splenopexy

surgery to tie down the spleen

spondylosyndesis

fusion of the spine

sputum

fluid and material brought up from the lungs and windpipe and spit out through the mouth

squamous cell carcinoma

cancer that usually occurs on the skin or in the lungs

staphylococcus

type of bacteria

stenosis

narrowing of a channel

stereotactic breast biopsy

biopsy of breast tissue taken by using a three­dimensional body map to locate the tissue

sterilization

the killing of all living germs; or a process to make a man or woman not able to have children

sternoclavicular

having to do with the breastbone and the collarbone

sternoid

like the breastbone

sternum

breastbone

stethoscope

tool used to listen to the sounds made by the heart, lungs, intestines, and other organs

stimulant.

drug used to speed up the central nervous system

stomach

the first part of the intestines that holds food for digestion after it is swallowed

stomatitis

inflammation inside the mouth that sometimes occurs as an allergic reaction; can also result from infection or virus

stomatogastric

the mouth and stomach

stool

bowel movement; feces

stool culture

test for bacteria in stool

strabismus

abnormal position of the eye, as in walleye or crossed eyes

streptococcus

type of bacteria

streptomycin

type of antibiotic

stricture

area where a tube in the body is too narrow

stye

pimple on the eyelid

subcostal

below the ribs

subcutaneous (SC)

under the skin

subdural

below the outer layer of the meninges

sublingual

under the tongue

sublingual administration

giving a substance by placing it under the tongue (not to be swallowed) (e.g., nitroglycerin)

submandibular

below the lower jaw

submaxillary

below the upper jaw

subscapular

below the shoulder blade

sulfonamide

type of antibiotic

superficial

close to the outside of the body

superior

toward the top of the body

supine

lying on the back

suppository

drug that is given by putting it into the rectum, vagina, or urethra

suprarenal

above the kidney; or having to do with the adrenal gland

suprascapular

above the shoulder blade

sweat glands

structures in and under the skin that makes sweat

swimmer's ear

inflammation of the outer ear canal

sympatholytic

drug used to slow down the action of certain types of nerves

sympathomimetic

drug used to speed up heart rate, raise blood pressure, and open up air passages

symphysis

type of joint where two bones meet but there is no movement

syncope

fainting spell

syndrome

set of signs that happen at the same time in the body

synergism

combined action of two drugs used together that is better than using each drug alone

synoviosarcoma

cancer of the joint

syphilis

bacterial infection spread by sexual contact

system

having to do with the whole body

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

chronic disorder of connective tissue in which there can be skin rash, arthritis, kidney problems, and anemia, among other problems

systole

the time when the heart contracts to pump blood to the body

T

tachypnea

fast breathing

tarsal bones

ankle bones

tarsectomy

surgery to remove one or more of the ankle bones

tendinitis

inflammation of tendons

tendon

elastic band that attaches muscle at each end

tenodynia

pain in a tendon

tenomyoplasty

surgery to stitch together a ripped tendon

tenorrhaphy

surgery to fix a tendon and muscle

tenosynovitis

inflammation of covering layer around a tendon

tenotomy

surgery to cut tendon of an eye muscle to fix strabismus

testicle

one of two male sex glands that make sperm

testicular carcinoma

cancer of the testicles

testis

one of two male sex glands that make sperm

tetany

muscle cramps caused by a low amount of calcium

tetracycline

type of antibiotic

tetraplegia

total loss of muscle movement and loss of feeling in both arms and legs

thoracalgia

pain in the chest or wall of the chest

thoracentesis

using a needle to remove fluid from the chest cavity

thoracic cavity

space where the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, and thymus are found

thoracic vertebrae

bones of the spine in back of the chest

thoracoscope

tool used to look into the chest cavity

thoracotomy

surgery to cut into the chest

thorax

the chest

throat

area between the mouth and esophagus that performs the swallowing action

thrombus

a clotting of blood factors that frequently blocks blood flow

thymectomy

surgery to remove the thymus

thymoma

tumor of the thymus

thymus

lymph organ in the chest, which is most active at puberty, where a type of lymphocyte is made

thyroid gland

gland in the neck that makes the thyroid hormones, which are important in controlling metabolism

thyroid­stimulating hormone (TSH)

hormone that makes the thyroid gland active

thyroidectomy

surgery to remove the thyroid gland

thyroparathyroidectomy

surgery to remove the thyroid and parathyroid glands

thyrotoxicosis

disorder caused by too much thyroid hormone

tibia

the larger of the two lower leg bones; the shin bone

tinea

fungal infection of skin; ringworm

tinnitus

ringing, roaring, buzzing, or clicking noises in the ears

tissue

group of cells that work together

titration

slow increase in drug dosage, guided by patient's responses

tolerance

decrease in response to a fixed dosage of drug; over time, higher and higher doses of a drug are needed to get desired effect

tonometer

tool that measures pressure inside the eye

tonsil

lymphoid tissue in the back of the mouth

tonsillectomy

surgery to remove a tonsil or tonsils

topical application

giving a medication by putting it directly on the skin

toxicity

any harmful effect of a drug or poison

trabeculectomy

surgery that makes a place for fluid to drain from the eye, reducing eye pressure in patients with glaucoma

trachea

windpipe

tracheitis

inflammation of the windpipe

trachelocystitis

inflammation of the neck of the urinary bladder

tracheoplasty

surgery to fix the windpipe

tracheostomy

surgery to make a hole through the neck from the windpipe to the outside of the body

tranquilizer

drug used to control anxiety

transdermal

through the skin

transdermal patch

patch containing a drug that is put on the skin so the drug will enter the body through the skin

transient ischemic attack (TIA)

sudden loss of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a few minutes to an hour but has no lasting effect

transrectal ultrasound

ultrasonography of the organs in the stomach done using a probe in the rectum

transverse plane

divides the body to make a top and bottom

traumatic

causing damage, like a tool used to crush tissue

treadmill stress test

test used to determine heart function

trichomoniasis

parasite infection that is spread by sexual contact

trichomycosis

fungus infection in the hair

tricuspid valve

a valve in the heart that controls the flow of blood by opening and closing with each heartbeat

tubal ligation

surgery to close the uterine tubes to prevent pregnancy

tuberculin

substance used in skin tests to test for tuberculosis

tuberculosis

bacterial infection that usually results in a serious lung disorder

tympanic membrane

eardrum

tympanitis

inflammation of the ear drum

tympanometer

tool used to fix the ear drum

tympanoplasty

surgery to fix the eardrum and bones of the middle ear

U

ulcer

sore

ulcerative colitis

sores in the colon

ulna

one of the two lower arm bones

ultrasonography.

making a picture of internal organs by bouncing sound waves off them and recording the echoes

ultrasound

making a picture of internal organs by bouncing sound waves off them and recording the echoes

umbilical region

area around the naval

umbilicus

navel; belly button

unconscious

not awake and not aware; knocked out

ungual

having to do with the nails

unilateral

having to do with only one side of a structure

upper GI (gastrointestinal) series

x­ray using a dye to show the upper part of the digestive system

upper respiratory infection (URI)

a cold or flu

uremia

buildup of poisons in the blood, usually because of kidney failure

ureter

tube that carries urine from a kidney to the urinary bladder

ureterectomy

surgery to remove all or part of a ureter

ureteritis

inflammation of the ureter

ureterocele

bulging of a ureter taken after putting a dye in it to outline it

urethrogram

x­ray of a ureter taken after putting a dye in it to outline it

ureterolithiasis

stones in the ureter

ureterostenosis

narrow area in a ureter

ureterostomy

surgery to make an opening into a ureter

ureterotomy

surgery to cut into a ureter

urethra

tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

urethritis

inflammation of the urethra

urethrocystitis

inflammation of the urethra

urethrometer

tool used to measure the urethra

urethropexy

surgery to tie down the urethra

urethroplasty

surgery to fix the urethra

urethrostomy

surgery to make an opening from the urethra to the outside of the body

uric acid test

blood test used to measure the amount of uric acid in the blood

urinal

container that holds urine

urinalysis

series of tests done on urine

urinary

having to do with urine

urinary bladder

sack that holds urine before it leaves the body

urinary catheterization

passing a tube into the urinary bladder to remove urine

urinary retention

abnormal holding of urine

urinary suppression

not able to discharge urine

urinary tract

all the structures that make and pass urine, including the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

urinary tract infection (UTI)

infection of the urinary system

urination

the act of passing urine

urine

pale yellow liquid waste material and sediment

urine casts and crystals

urine test to check mineral levels and sediment in the urine and to check for infection or inflammation in the urinary tract

urine color

normal color for urine is straw yellow

urine pH

urine test to find out the chemical makeup of urine (acidity)

urine protein

urine test used to measure how much protein is in the urine

urinometer

tool used to measure the specific gravity of urine

urodynamics

the force and flow of urine

urologist

doctor who treats disorders of the urinary tract of men and women and the genital tract of men

urticaria

hives

uterine tube

tube down which the egg travels from the ovary to the uterus

uterus

organ where the unborn baby develops and grows

uvula

v­shaped tissue that hangs from the roof of the back of the mouth

uvulectomy

surgery to remove the uvula

uvulitis

inflammation of the uvula


V

vagina

tube that connects the uterus to the outside of the body

vaginitis

inflammation of the vagina

vaginodynia

pain in the vagina

vaginoperineorrhgaphy

surgery to fix tears in the vagina and vaginal areas

vaginoplasty

surgery to fix the vagina

vagotomy

surgery to cut the vagus nerve or nerves, usually done to slow down the making of stomach acid

varicose veins

twisted and bulging veins that are larger than normal

vas deferens

tube that carries sperm out of the testicle

vasectomy

surgery to cut out part or all of the ductus deferens­done to make a man not able produce children

vasoconstrictor

drug used to make blood vessels tighten up and become narrower

vasodilator

drug used to make blood vessels open up and become bigger

vasovasostomy

surgery to undo a vasectomy by connecting up the ductus deferens again­done to make a man able to produce children again

VDRL test

blood test used to detect syphilis

vein

the type of blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart from the rest of the body

vein ligation and stripping

surgery to remove twisted (varicose) veins in the legs

vena cava

largest vein in the body

venipuncture

putting a needle into a vein

venogram.

x­ray of a vein

ventilator

machine used to help a person breathe

ventral

toward or having to do with the front of the body

ventricle

small space, such as one of several that hold spinal fluid inside the brain and the two lower chambers of the heart

venule

little vein

verruca

wart

vertebra

one of the 33 bones in the spine

vertebral column

the spine

vertebrocostal

having to do with a vertebra and a rib

vertigo

light­headedness; dizziness

vesicle

blister

vesicourethral

having to do with the urethra and the bladder

vesicovaginal fistula

abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina

viral

having to do with a virus

virus

tiny type of gene

visceral

having to do with the internal organs

vitreous body

jelly­like liquid found in the back chamber of the eye

void

urinate

volvulus

twisting of the intestines causing a blockage

vomit

matter discharged from the stomach out of the mouth

vulva

the tissues around the opening to the vagina

vulvectomy

surgery to remove the vulva

vulvovaginal

having to do with the vagina and vulva

vulvovaginitis

inflammation of the vagina and vulva

W

wheal

hive; welt

white blood cell (WBC)

one of several types of infection­fighting cells in the blood and body tissues

white blood cell differential

blood test to find out the types and numbers of mature and immature forms of white blood cells that are in the blood

white cell count

number of white blood cells in the blood

whooping cough (pertussis)

bacterial infection, usually seen in young children, in which there is a serious, loud, dry cough

withdraw, discontinue

stop taking part


X

xanthochromic

having a yellow color

xanthoderma

yellow color to the skin

xanthosis

yellow color

xeroderma

dry skin

xeroma

abnormally dry membranes of the eye

xerophthalmia

abnormal dryness of membranes of the eye due to vitamin A deficiency; symptoms may begin in the form of night blindness, and they become progressively worse

xerostomia

dryness of the mouth due to dysfunction of the salivary gland

xiphoid process

lower part of the breast bone


Z

zygote

the cell made by joining of the female egg and male sperm at the beginning of pregnancy

Simplicity is how we define ourselves. Simplicity in everything we do. Simplicity is all that matters.